WHITE-WINGED SCOTER

WHITE-WINGED SCOTER(Melanitta deglandi) – (See images below)
DESCRIPTION: The White-winged Scoter drake is black except for a small white crescent under the eye, and white wing secondaries. Bill has a thick black knob at the base with yellow-orange tip. Legs are pink orange. Females and juveniles are dark brown with the same white patch on the wings, and two white patches on the cheeks under the eye. Knobbed bill is dark brown or grey. It is a large diving duck at some 60 cm (24 inches) long.
VOICE: https://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Melanitta-deglandi
NAME: English name ‘Scoter’ would be a variation of ‘Coot’, a name used by hunters. Latin genus name ‘Melanitta’ means ‘black’, and Latin species name ‘deglandi’ refers to French ornithologist Côme Damien Degland.
HABITAT: Northern lakes and rivers in open country.
DIET: Feeds on various types of clams, mussels (blue), crustaceans and insects, also on vegetation such as sea lettuce or seeds.
NESTING: Nests built on the ground, preferably on a lake island. Several nests may be located in the same area, which might trigger conflicts between females. As a hen might end up with many more young than her own clutch. About nine light beige eggs are laid, incubated by the female. Ducklings able to feed themselves from birth.
DISTRIBUTION: Breeds in north west part of Canada and in Alaska, and also in eastern Siberia. Winters along the coasts of North America as well as of Asia.
Distribution map: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-winged_scoter#/media/File:Melanitta_deglandi_map.svg
ON PEI: Does not breed on Prince Edward Island, but common in spring and fall during migration. Rare to fairly common in the winter, depending on ice cover conditions.
CONSERVATION: White-winged scoters used to breed in the Prairie Pothole Region, but no longer due to conversion to agriculture. Population currently not at risk. However, vulnerable to habitat degradation from oil spills and accumulation of toxins in one of its main sources of food, the blue mussel.
NOTES: Swallows prey whole, even shellfish.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Black Scoter, Surf Scoter
REFERENCES: https://www.borealbirds.org/bird/white-winged-scoter
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-winged_scoter
http://www.oiseaux-birds.com/card-white-winged-scoter.html
https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/White-winged_Scoter/id
https://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/white-winged-scoter
http://www.ducks.org/hunting/waterfowl-id/white-winged-scoter
https://identify.whatbird.com/obj/299/overview/White-winged_Scoter.aspx
https://nhpbs.org/wild/whitewingedscoter.asp (New Hampshire PBS)

White-winged Scoter, adult male - Bodega Bay, CA - May 4, 2006 - Len Blumin
White-winged Scoter, adult male – Bodega Bay, CA – May 4, 2006 – Len Blumin
White-winged Scoter - Moss Landing, CA - Dec. 27, 2011 - Alan Schmierer
White-winged Scoter – Moss Landing, CA – Dec. 27, 2011 – Alan Schmierer
White-winged Scoter with wings open - Lake Ontario by Toronto, ON - Feb. 16, 2009 - Matt MacGillivray
White-winged Scoter with wings open – Lake Ontario by Toronto, ON – Feb. 16, 2009 – darth

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