NORTHERN PARULA

NORTHERN PARULA(Setophaga americana) – (See images below)
DESCRIPTION: The Northern Parula breeding male has blue-grey upper parts with a yellow-olive patch on the back. There are two white wing bars. Breast is yellow with a reddish band.  Eyes are black with a partial white eye ring. Bill upper mandible grey, lower mandible yellow.  Underside white. Females have duller colors with no breast band. Legs and feet pinkish grey. Bird length is about 11 cm (4.5 inches).
VOICE: https://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Setophaga-americana
NAME: The English name ‘Parula’ derives from Latin and refers to a ‘titmouse‘, an unrelated bird. The Latin genus name ‘Setophaga’ means ‘moth eater’.
HABITAT: Moist mixed and coniferous forest in the summer, also fields in the winter.
DIET: Moths, also other insects and spiders.
NESTING: This warbler builds a hanging cup made of epiphytic plants attached to a branch high on a tree. Between two and six creamy eggs are laid, incubated by both parents, who also both feed the chicks.
DISTRIBUTION: Breeding range covers southeast Canada and southeast USA. Migrates to the east coast of Mexico and the Caribbean for the winter.
DISTRIBUTION MAP: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_parula#/media/File:Parula_americana_map.svg
ON PEI: Breeds on Prince Edward Island and common.
CONSERVATION: Although considered a species of least concern, the northern parula population is impacted by clearing of bogs, forests spraying of pesticides and clear cutting. Because it nests in epiphytic plants on trees and air pollution has an impact on those plants, breeding areas have also decreased.
NOTES: The Northern parula is a New World warbler, a family of birds part of the large passerine order.
SIMILAR SPECIES: Nashville Warbler, Pine Warbler, Canada Warbler
REFERENCES: https://www.borealbirds.org/bird/northern-parula
https://www.mba-aom.ca/jsp/toc.jsp (Maritimes Breeding Bird Atlas)
https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Parula/id
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_parula
https://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/northern-parula
https://identify.whatbird.com/obj/286/overview/Northern_Parula.aspx
https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/northern-parula (Missouri Department of Conservation)

Northern parula male - North Rustico, PEI - May 29, 2017 - by Matt Beardsley
Northern parula male – North Rustico, PEI – May 29, 2017 – by Matt Beardsley
Northern Parula, female - Kensington area, PEI - Sept. 7, 2016 - Chris Rice
Northern Parula, female – Kensington area, PEI – Sept. 7, 2016 – Chris Rice
Northern parula - North Rustico, PEI - June 8, 2016 - by Matt Beardsley
Northern parula – North Rustico, PEI – June 8, 2016 – by Matt Beardsley

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